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Calcium

Calcium is found in bones and teeth of the human body. Foods high in Calcium include milk and dairy products, kale and broccoli, Calcium-enriched citrus juices, mineral water, canned fish with bones, and soy products processed with calcium. The circulating Calcium in the blood is a weak marker for the Calcium status, as it represents only 1% of the whole bodies Calcium.  If the Calcium level in the blood decreases, Calcium from the bones will be used to keep the blood Calcium level stable. So even if the Calcium levels are in a normal range, a Calcium deficiency could still exist. LOEWI utilizes the blood values to avoid too high doses of Calcium in the supplement and to detect anomalies. Calcium supports the stability of bones and can reduce the risk of osteoporosis  [1][2][3][4].

National Nutrition Study

  • 46% of all men do not reach the recommended daily allowance of Calcium.
  • 55% of all women do not reach the recommended daily allowance of Calcium [8].

Function of Calcium

Calcium is the antagonist of Magnesium in the muscle and is thus in charge of muscle contraction [5] [6] [7].
Calcium is a co-factor for many enzymatic-systems [5] [6].

99,5% of Calcium is in bones and teeth, this makes Calcium the most important mineral in the bones. It regulates the mineralization of bones and teeth and is a main factor for the stability of bones [5] [6] [7].

It is also in charge of conducting signals within a cell. Calcium-channels are responsable for the transmission of nerve impulses, regulate insulin secretion and the dilatation of blood vessels [5] [6] [7].

Deficiency Symptoms

The measurement of Calcium in the blood doesn’t represent the status of Calcium supply in the whole body. It merely is a tool to avoid too high doses of Calcium.
Osteoporosis is primary a disorder in the Calcium- and bone metabolism, which can be caused by a long-term deficiency of Calcium [5] [6].

Increased neuromuscular agitation caused by a Calcium deficiency can lead to disturbances in motor function (muscle cramps) and sensitivity (tingling sensation) [5] [8].

A long-term Calcium deficiency can cause psychosomatic symptoms, like resentfulness, depression or anxiety [5].

Surplus of Calcium

A Calcium surplus is mostly accompanied by unspecific symptoms, like nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and constipation [5].
Furthermore, a Calcium surplus can lead to inability to concentrate, depression and decreased excitability of muscles [5].
On top of that, a Calcium surplus can lead to arterial hypertension [5].

[1] Guillemant J, Le HT, Accarie C, et al. Mineral water as a source of dietary calcium: acute effects on parathyroid function and bone resorption in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:999-1002

[2] Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.

[3] L’Abbe MR, Whiting SJ, Hanley DA. The Canadian health claim for calcium, vitamin D and osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:303-8

[4] Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Institute of Medicine, November 30, 2010. Available at: http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-for-Calcium-and-Vitamin-D/Vitamin%20D%20and%20Calcium%202010%20Report%20Brief.pdf

[5] Koula-Jenik, H., Miko M., Kraft M., Schulz R., Leitfaden Ernährungsmedizin. Elsevier,Urban&Fischer Verlag 2013;p.52-55

[6] Christoph Raschka, Stephanie Ruf, Sport und Ernährung: Wissenschaftlich basierte Empfehlungen, Tipps und Ernährungspläne für die Praxis. Georg Thieme Verlag 2015; p.126-127

[7] Biesalski HK., Muniz K., Vitamine und Minerale: Indikation, Diagnostik, Therapie. Thieme Verlag 2017; p.144-149

[8] Max Rubner-Institut, Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und
Verbraucherschutz, Hrsg. Nationale Verzehrstudie II. Karlsruhe: MRI; 2008

[9] Wibusch N, Hofmann P, Förster H, Hörtnagl HLedl-Kurkowski E, Pokan R, Kompendium der Sportmedizin Physiologie, Innere Medizin und Pädiatrie. Springer-Verlag 2016; p. 352